May 17, 2024

The History of Kashmir – From Ancient Times to the 21st Century

The History of Kashmir
A Comprehensive Timeline of The History of Kashmir

The History of Kashmir – Kashmir is a region in South Asia that is located in the northernmost part of India, sharing borders with Pakistan and China. It is known for its scenic beauty, including snow-capped mountains, lakes, and valleys. The region has been a subject of dispute between India and Pakistan, and it is currently divided into three parts: the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir, the Pakistani-administered Azad Jammu and Kashmir, and the Chinese-administered Aksai Chin.

The Untold Legacy: Exploring the Long-Standing History of Kashmir

The Untold Legacy: Exploring the Long-Standing History of Kashmir
Journey Through the Ages – Exploring The History of Kashmir

The history of Kashmir is long and complex, with its roots dating back to ancient times. Over the centuries, the region has been ruled by different dynasties and empires, including the Mauryans, the Kushans, the Guptas, and the Mughals. In this essay, we will explore the history of Kashmir from the medieval period to the present day.

Medieval Period:

In the medieval period, Kashmir was ruled by several dynasties, including the Shah Miri and the Chak rulers. The Shah Miri dynasty was founded in the 14th century by Sultan Shams-ud-Din Shah Mir, who was a former governor of Swat. The dynasty lasted for over 200 years and was known for its patronage of the arts and literature.

In the 16th century, the Mughal Empire under Emperor Akbar conquered Kashmir and brought it under their rule. Akbar was known for his tolerance towards different religions, and he allowed the Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) to practice their religion freely. During this period, Kashmir became a center of art and culture, with poets, musicians, and artists flocking to the region.

In the 18th century, the Afghan Durrani Empire conquered Kashmir and ruled it for a short period. The Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh also annexed Kashmir in the early 19th century and ruled it until the British took over in 1846.

British Rule:

Under British rule, Kashmir was ruled as a princely state, with the Maharaja as the ruler. The British introduced a number of reforms in the region, including the abolition of the practice of sati (widow-burning) and the establishment of a modern education system. However, the British also supported the landowning elite, who were mostly Muslim, at the expense of the poor and marginalized communities.

Partition and Independence:

In 1947, India and Pakistan gained independence from the British Empire, and the princely states were given the option of joining either India or Pakistan. The Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh, initially wanted to remain independent, but he eventually acceded to India under pressure from the Indian government.

This led to a war between India and Pakistan over the region, with both countries claiming the territory. The war ended in a ceasefire, and a line of control was established between the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir and the Pakistani-administered Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

Post-Independence:

After independence, Kashmir became a bone of contention between India and Pakistan, with both countries laying claim to the region. The situation in Kashmir worsened in the 1980s and 1990s, with the rise of separatist movements and armed insurgencies. The Indian government responded with force, leading to human rights abuses and atrocities against the local population.

In recent years, the situation in Kashmir has remained tense, with the Indian government revoking the region’s special status in 2019 and imposing a curfew and internet blackout. The move has been criticized by human rights organizations and the international community, and the situation in Kashmir remains a matter of concern.

In conclusion, the history of Kashmir is complex and multifaceted, with its roots dating back to ancient times. The region has been ruled by different dynasties and empires over the centuries, and it has been a subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since independence. The situation in Kashmir remains tense, and it is important for both countries to work towards a peaceful resolution to the conflict.

Demographics

The demographics of Kashmir are complex and diverse, reflecting the region’s long history of cultural and religious diversity. The region is home to several ethnic and linguistic groups, including Kashmiris, Dogras, Ladakhis, Gujjars, and Bakarwals.

The majority of the population in Kashmir is Muslim, with Kashmiri Muslims accounting for around 96% of the population. The Muslim population in Kashmir is further divided into different sects, including Sunni and Shia Muslims. There is also a small minority of Hindus, known as Kashmiri Pandits, who have lived in the region for centuries but were forced to flee in large numbers in the 1990s due to insurgency and violence.

In addition to Muslims and Hindus, there are also small communities of Sikhs, Christians, and Buddhists in the region. The Sikh population is concentrated in Jammu, where they account for around 20% of the population. The Christian population is mostly concentrated in the Ladakh region, where they account for around 2% of the population.

The language spoken in Kashmir is Kashmiri, which is an Indo-Aryan language. In addition to Kashmiri, several other languages are also spoken in the region, including Dogri, Pahari, and Ladakhi. English and Urdu are also widely spoken and understood, particularly among the educated population.

The caste system is also prevalent in the region, with different communities belonging to different castes. The Kashmiri Pandits, for instance, belong to the Brahmin caste, while the Gujjars and Bakarwals are classified as Scheduled Tribes. The Dalits, who are traditionally considered the lowest caste in the Hindu social hierarchy, also form a small proportion of the population.

The population of Kashmir is concentrated in the Kashmir Valley, which is a fertile region known for its scenic beauty. The largest city in the region is Srinagar, which is also the summer capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Other important cities in the region include Jammu, the winter capital of the state, and Leh, which is the largest town in Ladakh.

Despite the region’s diversity, there have been tensions between different communities in the past, particularly between Muslims and Hindus. The insurgency and violence that erupted in the region in the 1990s led to the forced migration of thousands of Kashmiri Pandits, who had been living in the region for centuries. However, there have also been efforts to promote communal harmony and unity in the region, with several interfaith initiatives and peace-building efforts taking place in recent years.

In conclusion, the demographics of Kashmir are complex and diverse, reflecting the region’s long history of cultural and religious diversity. The region is home to several ethnic and linguistic groups, with Muslims forming the majority of the population. The region’s diversity has led to tensions in the past, but efforts to promote communal harmony and unity are ongoing.

Plant and Animal life of Kashmir

The region is known for its natural beauty and rich biodiversity, with a wide variety of plant and animal species.

Plant Life:

Kashmir is home to a variety of plant species due to its diverse topography, which includes high-altitude peaks, valleys, and wetlands. The vegetation in Kashmir varies depending on the altitude and climatic conditions. The lower altitudes are covered by deciduous forests of oak, maple, walnut, and horse chestnut trees. The upper altitudes are characterized by coniferous forests of pine, fir, spruce, and cedar trees. The valley floors are covered by lush meadows and grasslands that are home to wildflowers, such as poppies, daisies, and violets.

Animal Life:

Kashmir is also home to a variety of animal species, including mammals, birds, and fish. The region is known for its large population of brown bears, snow leopards, and Himalayan tahr, which are all endangered species. Other mammals found in Kashmir include red foxes, Himalayan musk deer, and marmots. The region is also a haven for bird watchers, with over 300 species of birds, including golden eagles, Himalayan monals, and koklass pheasants. The rivers and lakes of Kashmir are home to several fish species, including brown trout and Himalayan snow trout.

Overall, the plant and animal life of Kashmir is diverse and unique, and the region is an important ecological hotspot in South Asia.

Agricultural History of Kashmir

The agricultural sector is a vital component of many economies, including in developing countries like India, where agriculture is one of the largest employers and contributes significantly to the country’s GDP. Kashmir, which is a region located in the northern part of India, is also an important agricultural region.

Agriculture in Kashmir:

Kashmir is primarily an agricultural region with fertile land, abundant water resources, and a favorable climate. The region is famous for its production of several agricultural commodities, including rice, wheat, maize, barley, and pulses. Horticulture is also an essential component of the agricultural sector in Kashmir, with the region being a significant producer of apples, cherries, apricots, and almonds.

Challenges in the agricultural sector:

Despite its importance, the agricultural sector in Kashmir faces several challenges, including the lack of modern technologies, inadequate infrastructure, and insufficient access to credit. Additionally, the region is vulnerable to natural disasters such as floods and landslides, which can cause extensive damage to crops and infrastructure.

Efforts to improve the agricultural sector:

The government of India, as well as the government of the Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory, have launched several initiatives to improve the agricultural sector in Kashmir. These initiatives include the adoption of modern farming technologies, the establishment of agricultural universities and research centers, and the provision of credit facilities and subsidies to farmers. Additionally, the government is also promoting organic farming and diversification of crops to increase the income of farmers.

Overall, the agricultural sector in Kashmir is crucial for the region’s economy and livelihoods of its people. With appropriate interventions and support, the sector has the potential to grow and contribute to the region’s development.

Food History of Kashmir

The food history of Kashmir is rich and diverse, reflecting the region’s geography, climate, and cultural influences over time. Kashmiri cuisine is primarily meat-based, with a variety of spices and herbs that create a unique flavor profile. Here are some of the key components of Kashmiri cuisine:

  1. Rice: Rice is the staple food of Kashmir and is used in a variety of dishes, including pulao, biryani, and rishta. Kashmiri rice is typically long-grained and aromatic, with a nutty flavor.
  2. Meat: Meat is a significant component of Kashmiri cuisine, with lamb, chicken, and goat being the most commonly consumed. The meat is typically cooked slowly over low heat, allowing it to absorb the flavors of the spices.
  3. Spices: Kashmiri cuisine is known for its use of spices, which include fennel, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, and saffron. These spices give the dishes a unique flavor and aroma.
  4. Vegetables: Kashmiri cuisine also includes a variety of vegetables, including potatoes, eggplants, tomatoes, and lotus roots. These vegetables are typically cooked with spices and served as a side dish.
  5. Bread: Kashmiri cuisine includes a variety of bread, including naan, kulcha, and sheermal. These breads are typically served with meat dishes or as a snack.
  6. Tea: Kashmiri chai, also known as noon chai, is a popular beverage in the region. The tea is made with green tea leaves, milk, and a variety of spices, including cinnamon, cardamom, and saffron.

Overall, the food history of Kashmir is an essential part of the region’s cultural heritage, with a variety of dishes that reflect the region’s unique geography and cultural influences over time.

Art of Kashmir

The art history of Kashmir dates back to ancient times, and the region is known for its rich cultural heritage and artistic traditions. Kashmir has been a melting pot of various cultures and influences, including Persian, Central Asian, and Indian, which have contributed to the region’s unique artistic style. Here are some of the significant art forms of Kashmir:

  1. Papier-Mache: Papier-mache is a popular art form in Kashmir, and the region is known for its intricate and colorful papier-mache products. The papier-mache artisans of Kashmir use a mixture of paper pulp, glue, and chalk powder to create a variety of objects, including bowls, trays, and vases.
  2. Shawl Making: Shawl making is another significant art form of Kashmir, and the region is known for its high-quality woolen shawls. The shawls are made from fine wool, and the designs are embroidered using a needle and thread.
  3. Carpet Weaving: Carpet weaving is another popular art form in Kashmir, and the region is known for its high-quality hand-knotted carpets. The carpets are typically made from silk or wool, and the designs are inspired by Persian and Central Asian styles.
  4. Wood Carving: Wood carving is a traditional art form in Kashmir, and the region is known for its intricate wood carvings. The wood carvers of Kashmir create a variety of objects, including furniture, doors, and window frames.
  5. Calligraphy: Calligraphy is a significant art form in Kashmir, and the region is known for its beautiful Arabic and Persian calligraphy. The calligraphers of Kashmir use a variety of writing instruments, including reed pens and brushes, to create intricate designs and patterns.

Overall, the art history of Kashmir is diverse and rich, with a variety of art forms that reflect the region’s unique cultural heritage and artistic traditions.

Resources of Kashmir

Kashmir is a region located in the northern part of India and is known for its natural beauty and abundant resources. Here are some of the significant resources of Kashmir:

  • Water: Kashmir is blessed with abundant water resources, including several rivers, lakes, and glaciers. The Jhelum River is the most prominent river in the region, and it is a major source of water for irrigation and hydropower generation.
  • Forests: Kashmir has vast forest resources, covering around 20% of the region’s total area. The forests of Kashmir are known for their rich biodiversity and include several species of trees, including oak, maple, and pine.
  • Minerals: Kashmir has significant mineral resources, including limestone, gypsum, coal, and bauxite. However, the mining of these minerals has been limited due to environmental concerns.
  • Tourism: Tourism is a significant resource in Kashmir, and the region is known for its natural beauty and cultural heritage. The tourism industry in Kashmir contributes significantly to the region’s economy, providing employment opportunities for thousands of people.
  • Agriculture: Agriculture is another significant resource in Kashmir, and the region is known for its production of rice, wheat, maize, and pulses. Horticulture is also an essential component of the agricultural sector in Kashmir, with the region being a significant producer of apples, cherries, apricots, and almonds.

Overall, the resources of Kashmir are diverse and abundant, providing significant opportunities for economic development and growth. However, the region’s natural resources also face several challenges, including environmental degradation and overexploitation, which need to be addressed to ensure their sustainable use.

Health and Welfare

Health and welfare are critical aspects of human development and are essential for ensuring the well-being of individuals and communities. In Kashmir, healthcare and welfare services are provided by the government and private sector, with the goal of providing access to quality healthcare and social services to all citizens. Here are some of the key aspects of health and welfare in Kashmir:

  • Healthcare: The healthcare system in Kashmir comprises government and private hospitals, primary healthcare centers, and community health centers. The government also provides free healthcare services to those living below the poverty line. However, access to healthcare services is still a significant challenge in many parts of Kashmir due to infrastructure and resource limitations.
  • Education: Education is a critical aspect of welfare, and the government of Kashmir has taken significant steps to ensure that all children have access to quality education. The region has a high literacy rate, with a focus on providing education to girls and underprivileged children.
  • Social welfare: The government of Kashmir provides various social welfare programs, including pensions for senior citizens, scholarships for students, and financial assistance to families living below the poverty line. These programs aim to alleviate poverty and improve the standard of living for disadvantaged individuals and communities.
  • Mental health: Mental health is a critical aspect of overall health and well-being, and the government of Kashmir has taken steps to address mental health issues in the region. The government has established mental health clinics and provides counseling services to those in need.
  • Disaster response: Kashmir is prone to natural disasters, such as earthquakes and floods. The government has established disaster management systems to respond to such events and provide relief to affected communities.

Overall, health and welfare are essential aspects of development in Kashmir, and the government has taken significant steps to ensure that all citizens have access to quality healthcare and social services. However, there is still room for improvement, particularly in addressing access to healthcare services in remote areas and improving disaster management systems.

Manufacturing Sector of Kashmir

The manufacturing sector in Kashmir is relatively small and underdeveloped compared to other regions in India. However, there are some significant industries in the region, including handicrafts, silk, saffron, and food processing. Here are some of the significant manufacturing industries in Kashmir:

Handicrafts: Handicrafts are a significant manufacturing industry in Kashmir, and the region is known for its high-quality products, including shawls, carpets, and papier-mache products. The handicrafts industry provides employment opportunities to thousands of people in the region and is a significant contributor to the local economy.

Silk: Silk production is another significant manufacturing industry in Kashmir, and the region is known for its high-quality silk products. The silk industry in Kashmir provides employment opportunities to thousands of people and contributes significantly to the local economy.

Saffron: Saffron cultivation is a significant manufacturing industry in Kashmir, with the region being one of the largest producers of saffron in the world. Saffron cultivation provides employment opportunities to thousands of people and contributes significantly to the local economy.

Food processing: Food processing is a growing manufacturing industry in Kashmir, with a focus on processing fruits and vegetables. The food processing industry provides employment opportunities to thousands of people and contributes significantly to the local economy.

Overall, the manufacturing sector in Kashmir is relatively small, with a focus on traditional industries such as handicrafts, silk, and saffron. However, there is significant potential for growth in the manufacturing sector, particularly in areas such as food processing and other value-added industries. To realize this potential, the government of Kashmir needs to address infrastructure and resource limitations and provide a favorable business environment for manufacturers.

Famous Places To Visit In Kashmir

Kashmir is known for its natural beauty, cultural heritage, and historical significance. Here are some of the famous places to visit in Kashmir:

  1. Srinagar: Srinagar is the capital city of Jammu and Kashmir and is known for its stunning landscapes, including the Dal Lake and Mughal Gardens. The city is also famous for its handicrafts, including shawls, carpets, and papier-mache products.
  2. Gulmarg: Gulmarg is a popular ski resort in Kashmir and is known for its scenic beauty and adventure sports. The town is surrounded by snow-covered mountains, making it a popular destination for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports.
  3. Pahalgam: Pahalgam is a scenic town in Kashmir known for its natural beauty, including the Lidder River and the Betaab Valley. The town is also a popular destination for trekking and hiking.
  4. Sonamarg: Sonamarg is a scenic town in Kashmir known for its natural beauty and adventure sports. The town is surrounded by snow-covered mountains and is a popular destination for skiing, trekking, and camping.
  5. Leh-Ladakh: Leh-Ladakh is a region located in the northern part of Jammu and Kashmir and is known for its stunning landscapes, including the Nubra Valley, Pangong Tso Lake, and the Khardung La Pass. The region is also famous for its Buddhist monasteries and cultural heritage.
  6. Amarnath Cave: The Amarnath Cave is a famous Hindu pilgrimage site located in the mountains of Kashmir. The cave is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is visited by thousands of pilgrims every year during the summer months.

Overall, Kashmir offers a unique blend of natural beauty, adventure sports, cultural heritage, and historical significance, making it a popular destination for tourists from all over the world.

Political History of Kashmir

The political history of Kashmir is complex and has been a subject of dispute for many years. Kashmir is a region located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by India, Pakistan, and China. The region has a rich history, with evidence of human habitation dating back thousands of years. Here is a brief overview of the political history of Kashmir:

  • Pre-Partition Era: Before the partition of India in 1947, Kashmir was a princely state ruled by the Dogra Dynasty. The region was largely autonomous, with its own laws, customs, and administrative system.
  • Partition and the First Indo-Pak War: Following the partition of India in 1947, Kashmir became a subject of dispute between India and Pakistan. The Maharaja of Kashmir initially decided to remain independent, but soon after, Pakistan-backed tribesmen invaded the region, prompting the Maharaja to seek Indian military assistance. This led to the first Indo-Pak war, which ended with a ceasefire agreement, dividing Kashmir into two parts – one controlled by India and the other by Pakistan.
  • The Line of Control: In 1972, India and Pakistan signed the Simla Agreement, which established the Line of Control (LoC) as the de facto border between the two parts of Kashmir. The LoC is a heavily militarized border, with frequent clashes between Indian and Pakistani troops.
  • Insurgency: Since the late 1980s, Kashmir has been plagued by an insurgency, with militants seeking independence or a merger with Pakistan. The insurgency has led to a significant loss of life and displacement of people in the region.
  • Article 370 and 35A: In 2019, the Indian government revoked Article 370 and 35A of the Indian Constitution, which granted a special status to Jammu and Kashmir, the Indian-administered part of Kashmir. The move was controversial and led to widespread protests and a security crackdown in the region.

Overall, the political history of Kashmir has been marked by conflict and controversy. The region remains a subject of dispute between India and Pakistan, with the people of Kashmir caught in the middle.

Conflict History of Kashmir

The conflict in Kashmir has its roots in the partition of India in 1947, which led to the creation of India and Pakistan. The ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh, initially chose to remain independent. However, he was soon pressured by both India and Pakistan to accede to their respective countries. Eventually, in October 1947, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession, joining India.

The accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India was immediately challenged by Pakistan, which sent troops into the region. India also sent troops to the region, and a war broke out between the two countries. In 1949, the United Nations intervened and brokered a ceasefire, with the region divided between India and Pakistan along a ceasefire line that later became known as the Line of Control.

The conflict in Kashmir continued, with Pakistan supporting separatist movements in the region. The first major separatist movement in the region was the Plebiscite Front, which demanded a plebiscite to determine the future of Jammu and Kashmir. The movement was supported by Pakistan and was led by Sheikh Abdullah, a popular leader in the region. However, the movement was banned by the Indian government in 1953, and Sheikh Abdullah was arrested.

In the following decades, several other separatist movements emerged in the region, including the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF), which was founded in 1977. The JKLF advocated for an independent Kashmir, free from Indian and Pakistani control. The movement gained momentum in the late 1980s, as protests and violence erupted in the region.

The insurgency in Kashmir, as it came to be known, was fueled by a sense of alienation and discrimination among the Muslim population in the region. The Indian government’s heavy-handed response to the protests and violence, including the use of torture and extrajudicial killings, further fueled the insurgency.

Pakistan supported the separatist movement by providing training and weapons to militants. India, in turn, accused Pakistan of sponsoring terrorism in the region. The conflict in Kashmir has led to several wars between India and Pakistan, including the Kargil War in 1999.

The insurgency in Kashmir has also led to human rights abuses, including torture, extrajudicial killings, and enforced disappearances. Both Indian security forces and militants have been accused of committing such abuses. The conflict has led to the displacement of thousands of people, particularly the Kashmiri Pandits, who were forced to flee the region in the 1990s.

Efforts to resolve the conflict have been ongoing, but progress has been slow. In 2004, India and Pakistan agreed to a ceasefire along the Line of Control, which has largely held. However, the separatist movement in Kashmir has not been quelled, and there have been continued protests and violence in the region.

In conclusion, the conflict in Kashmir has its roots in the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947. The conflict has been fueled by separatist movements in the region, as well as by the support of Pakistan and allegations of terrorism. The insurgency in Kashmir has led to human rights abuses and the displacement of thousands of people. Efforts to resolve the conflict have been ongoing, but progress has been slow, and protests and violence continue in the region.

Was Kashmir a Country Before 1947?

Kashmir was not a country before 1947. It was a princely state, which was ruled by a hereditary monarch called the Maharaja. The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, which included the regions of Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh, was one of the largest princely states in British India, and it had a population of around 4 million people.

The Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, Hari Singh, initially wanted to remain independent after the partition of India in 1947, but he was soon pressured by both India and Pakistan to join their respective countries. Eventually, in October 1947, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession, which acceded the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir to India. However, Pakistan disputed the accession, leading to a conflict between India and Pakistan over the region.

What is the Truth of Kashmiri Pandits?

The Kashmiri Pandits are a Hindu minority community that historically lived in the Kashmir Valley in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a violent insurgency erupted in the region, which led to the displacement of thousands of Kashmiri Pandits from the valley. The exact number of Kashmiri Pandits who were displaced is disputed, with estimates ranging from 100,000 to 300,000.

The displacement of Kashmiri Pandits from the valley was a result of a combination of factors, including the rise of Islamist militancy, the deteriorating security situation in the region, and the targeting of the community by separatist groups. The militants targeted the Kashmiri Pandits for their perceived association with India and Hinduism. The situation in the valley became so precarious that many Kashmiri Pandits felt they had no choice but to flee their homes for their safety.

The displacement of Kashmiri Pandits has been widely acknowledged as a tragedy, and the Indian government has taken several measures to address the issue. The government has provided financial assistance and other forms of support to the displaced Kashmiri Pandits, and there have been efforts to resettle them in the valley. However, the issue remains unresolved, and many Kashmiri Pandits continue to live as refugees in their own country.

There is no denying the fact that the displacement of Kashmiri Pandits was a tragic event that has had a profound impact on the community. However, the issue is complex, and there are different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the displacement. Some argue that the displacement was a result of the rise of militancy and the targeting of the community by separatist groups. Others argue that the displacement was a result of the Indian government’s policies in the region, which created a climate of fear and insecurity for the Kashmiri Pandits.

In conclusion, the truth of the displacement of Kashmiri Pandits is a matter of interpretation and perspective. The displacement was a tragic event that has had a profound impact on the community, and there is a need for continued efforts to address the issue and support the displaced Kashmiri Pandits.

Final Words on The History of Kashmir

Kashmir has a rich and diverse history, with evidence of human habitation in the region dating back thousands of years. Over the centuries, the region has been ruled by various dynasties, including the Mauryan, Gupta, Mughal, and Sikh empires. Kashmir is also known for its cultural heritage, including its art, music, and literature.

In modern times, Kashmir has been a subject of dispute between India and Pakistan, leading to a significant loss of life and displacement of people in the region. The political history of Kashmir is complex and has been marked by conflict and controversy.

Despite the challenges, Kashmir remains a unique and beautiful region, with its natural beauty, cultural heritage, and historical significance attracting tourists from all over the world. The people of Kashmir are resilient and continue to work towards a peaceful and prosperous future for themselves and their region.

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One thought on “The History of Kashmir – From Ancient Times to the 21st Century

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